This article continues the trend of the previous articles and begins with a history of binary. After that, I briefly reiterate why binary is used in modern electronic devices as covered in the previous article, and go into more depth regarding binary “sizes” (bit, byte, kilobyte, etc.) Then I move on to important elements of binary arithmetic, and the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. I cover two operations often found in computing processors, the shift operators, and their mathematical meaning. Finally, I briefly cover Boolean logic operations.